Poster from the Dig for Victory campaign launched in the U.K during World War II

February Food Feature: Kale

“The finest winter vegetable we have”-Thomas Jefferson
Russian Hunger Gap (left) True Siberian (right)

Russian Hunger Gap (left) True Siberian (right)

During these bitter cold days of winter, it is hard to believe anything of nutritional value might be growing outside.  Think again! Kale, in fact, has a history of nourishing people throughout the cold dark months of the year and is considered one of the

true treasures of the fall garden.

- Thomas Jefferson

 Nutritional Profile

“Kale Tops the Nutrient Density Scale” 

Kale is rich in vitamin A, C, K, fiber, omega -3s, calcium, and potassium.  Kale contains antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive nutrients called glucosinolates.

Ancient History
Kale’s origins go back to the Middle Ages.  Like broccoli, cauliflower and collards, kale is a descendent of the wild cabbage.  At that time, Kale was the most common green vegetable in all of Europe.  The Romans, for example, ate Siberian kale.  Siberian kale is considered to be the ancestor of modern kales but is more closely tied to rutabagas.
Poster from the Dig for Victory campaign launched in the U.K during World War II

Poster from the Dig for Victory campaign launched in the U.K during World War II

During World War II, cultivation of kale made a comeback in the U.K. when it was featured in the Dig for Victory campaign. Kale was praised because it was easy to grow (being both frost tolerant and a perennial) and it provided nutrients to supplement the rationed diet.  

America’s introduction to kale was in the 17th century, but it wasn’t what the Romans ate.  Our kale came from England and was called sea kale.  Ever since then, kale in Virginia has been most commonly braised, either alone or mixed with other greens, such as collards. Thomas Jefferson grew kale in his own garden at Monticello, and experimented with several varieties such as sprout kale.  He once wrote that kale was one of  “the finest winter vegetables we have”.

Some of the most common kale recipes used in Jefferson’s day are very similar to the way they prepared cabbage and asparagus.  The common practice was to boil the kale until tender. See the excerpt below from the historic 1842 Virginia Housewife cookbook, by Mary Randolph.

Braised Kale with Sausage

Braised Kale with Sausage, see recipe here at Edible blue Ridge blog

Set a stew-pan with plenty of water on the fire, sprinkle a handful of salt in it, let it boil, and skim it; then put in the kale prepared thus: once perfectly cleaned; throw them into a pan of cold water, then tie them into bundles.  When they are tender at the stalk they are done enough.  Great care must be taken to watch the exact time of their becoming tender; take them just at that instant, and they will have their true flavor and colour.

Baked Kale Chips with Parmesan

Baked Kale Chips with Parmesan, see the recipe here!

Kale’s meteoric rise in popularity over the last several years may seem like a fad to the critics of local and raw food movements. Kale is not only NOT a fad, it is fact an Old World food and is a staple in many countries around the world.  Today, you can find kale in sandwiches, salads, soups, juices, desserts (what!) and most commonly used as a healthy substitute for potato chips (see recipe to the left).

Thanks for taking the time to read about the history and heritage of kale.    This blog was posted as part of City Schoolyard Garden‘s Harvest of the Month program.

The Food Heritage Project thanks you and asks you to consider eating some locally grown (preferably organic) kale.

If you forgot some of the reasons why, I will refresh your memory:

you should be eating (and growing) kale because:

1. Thomas Jefferson ate and grew kale.

2.  Kale is highly nutritious

3.  The Romans ate kale, (and today it’s a staple in Scotland, Kenya, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy..need I say more?)

4. It’s inexpensive and easy to grow

5. It is highly versatile, you can practically cook it into anything, even chocolate cakes! (Click here to see the recipe for a chocolate kale cake with sea salt.)

This post was written by Abigail Sandberg

Can Public Policies Help Promote and Protect Heritage Foods?

Governments play an important role in all phases of a food system – various federal, state, and local laws regulate everything from the farms on which food is grown and which foods are economically feasible to grow, to the labeling and distribution of that food. It should come as no surprise that governments have an important role to play in the protection and promotion of place-based heritage foods. One public policy in particular that can help in this area is protective labeling practices, or “geographic indicators.”terroir-definition-for-wine

The model for protective labeling of place-based heritage foods is France – the home of the concept of terroir, a term originally used to describe wine that is now applied to many other products, that refers to “specificity of place, which has come to include not only the soil in a region, but also the climate, the weather…and anything else that can possibly differentiate one piece of land from another.” The French system of appellation d’origine controlee (AOC), which protects foods and drinks that have historical links to particular geographic locations, originally emerged due to the advocacy of agricultural groups who were concerned about international competition and fraudulent marketing – such as a sparkling wine marketing itself as “champagne” that was not produced in the Champagne region. Today, the law protects groups of producers in particular regions who work with the government to create a well-aopdefined geographic area of origin, work together to promote the food, and commit to maintaining quality and preserving artisan production methods.Though these protective measures may limit the supply of the product, consumers are well aware of the strength of the brand and the assurance of quality of the product, and the foods are the better for it.

The place-based designation concept is not totally foreign to the United States – many states (including Virginia) have agricultural marketing programs aimed at promoting foods grown in-state. One of the most well-developed place-based initiatives is the American Viticultural Areas, federally designated geographic wine-growing regions. (You’ll notice our own local AVA – Monticello – referenced on bottles from local wineries.) One of the most famous examples of a place-based food in the United States is the Vidalia Onion, a type of onion whose production is limited to certain counties in Georgia, as defined state and federal level legislation. There’s even an example of this in Virginia, where the definition of a true Smithfield Ham is protected by law.

The Vidalia Onion is a particularly useful example of the ways in which a group of relatively small producers utilized public policy to gain prominence and successfully charge a price premium. Producers must receive approval from the Georgia Department of Agriculture to sell Vidalia onions, and all producers agree on a uniform quality control scheme in order to protect the consistency of the product. The Vidalia Onion Committee organizes an annual festival and other events to promote the product. One study of the success of the Vidalia notes that the market for Vid51G+WWP31QL._SX425_alias is driven by “consumers’ perception of these onions as a higher-value product compared with other onions,” resulting in a willingness to pay a price premium.

Why go to all the trouble? As the case of Vidalia onions shows, these types of initiatives provide both social and commercial benefits for heritage foods: products are differentiated from their generic competitors, creating the space for a market niche or competitive advantage, and through that differentiation, agricultural communities can achieve increased specialty market share and the preservation of local techniques can be supported.

Of course, geographic indications do not necessarily suggest anything about the methods of production or how close it is to a “historical recipe.” Defining the requirements to be labeled “Monticello area heritage product,” for example, could serve as an excellent opportunity for community engagement and asset identification. For instance, would each producer need to use the same recipe and ingredients (if it’s a processed food), or use similar growing techniques (if it’s a raw food), or share some sort of geographic similarity? How would the group define “heritage?” Each community needs to decide this on its own.

While it’s unlikely that a nascent heritage product will get state-level protection any time soon, there are a number of steps that small producers can take to put themselves in a position to create a market niche just as Vidalias have:

  1. vidaliaonions_004Identify like-minded producers, chefs, and consumers to create local awareness and usage of the product;
  2. Reach out to Virginia Agriculture Extension representatives to gather information about what resources are available for production and promotion;
  3. Identify greater networks (like heritage trails or museums) to tap into larger networks of potential customers;
  4. Consider a public event like a festival or tasting competition to engage unfamiliar consumers.

Going through this process will not only help young food industries scale up and out by articulating precisely what is special about the product and the place from which it originates, but will put them in a stronger position to work together to expand the reach of their product. Numerous studies have shown that discerning customers are willing to pay a price premium to get their hands on the “real thing” – authenticity is one of the core values of today’s food movement. A conversation that begins with asset-identification and defining heritage can lead eventually to a stronger product that both promotes and preserves heritage – a win-win if there ever was one.

Breakfast with Jefferson

February 2014

Breakfast with Jefferson

A Lynchburg Bed & Breakfast Prepares a Breakfast Fit for a President

Breakfast_Sweet_Potato_Pancakes1[1]

Sweet Potato Pancakes (Courtesy of Carriage House)

The Carriage House Inn Bed and Breakfast in Lynchburg Virginia, also known as “The Watts House,” will be participating in this year’s Jefferson’s Virginia Summer Festival, which will focus on events between Monticello and Poplar Forest (built 1806-1823), Thomas Jefferson’s summer retreat in the Lynchburg Area.  During this period guests of The Carriage House Inn Bed and Breakfast will enjoy some of Thomas Jefferson’s favorite foods, which will be incorporated into our 4-course breakfast.  For example, he was very fond of sweet potatoes, watermelon, pistachios and tomatoes just to name a few.  He also enjoyed pancakes, spoon bread and bread puddings.  We have taken several of the foods that he enjoyed and incorporated them into menu items such as sweet potato pancakes or watermelon with a ginger lime sauce with salted pistachios. Tomatoes, of which Jefferson was an early champion, will be incorporated into several dishes.  Additionally, we have created other menu items such as a corn-bacon spoon bread and blueberry bread pudding.  Of course all of our recipes will be available for guests to take home and prepare for their friends and family.  Unfortunately Thomas Jefferson will not be at the table with you, but some of his favorite foods will be served and you can only imagine the conversations that would be taking place around the table.

exterior_night

The Carriage House Inn

Another link between Poplar Forest and The Carriage House Inn Bed and Breakfast is they were both owned by the same family.  The Bed and Breakfast was built by Richard Thomas (R. T.) Watts and was completed in 1878.  Descendents of R.T. were the last private residents of Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest.  The Hutters sold the property to James O. Watts in 1946 who resided there until 1980 when it was sold to Dr. James A. Johnson of High Point, North Carolina who purchased it for preservation purposes and later sold it in 1984 to the nonprofit Corporation for Jefferson’s Poplar Forest whose goal is to preserve and, where possible, restore all the aspects of the heart of Thomas Jefferson’s retreat.  Another similarity is the construction of the home.  The interior walls of each residence are several courses of brick with plaster applied to the brick.  While our walls are covered with plaster, several of the walls of Poplar Forest have been left uncovered so that you can see what’s behind the walls.  Looking at those walls you can see channels cut in the brick where subsequent owners may have run plumbing or electrical wires.  There are also several wooden pegs in the brick which were put there so the plasterers knew how far out to bring the final coat of plaster.

Thomas Jefferson once said, “Nothing would give me greater pleasure than to be useful to the town of Lynchburg. I consider it to be the most interesting spot in the state.”  The Carriage House Inn Bed and Breakfast invites you to step back in history and enjoy a stay at R.T.’s home and enjoy many of the same foods that Thomas Jefferson enjoyed and see why Lynchburg is the “most interesting spot in the state.”

Jefferson’s Virginia Summer Festival takes place from May 25 through July 4, 2015.  You can check their website to see what other events will be taking place during the summer.

NOTE:  Due to health department regulations we are only allowed to serve breakfast to registered guests.

Persimmons: Food of the Virginia Gods

JANUARY 2014:

Persimmons

Food of the Virginia Gods

Ethan Strickler profiles a fruit unique in taste, appearance, and heritage

By Ethan Strickler

image 1

Picture 1. Hachiya Persimmon held by the author.

This time of year in central Virginia, and over much of southeastern North America, you may come across a peculiar, orange fruit either dangling from naked tree branches or resting softly on the ground below its mother tree. The taste, for those who do not know, is very unique, but incredibly delicious.

This “forgotten” fruit is the American Persimmon. The scientific name, Diospyros Virginiana (Picture 5), roughly translates to “food of the gods from Virginia”[1]. The fruit is astringent and mouth numbing while still green. It is written that Captain John Smith, one of the most famous early Virginians, warned others about eating unripe persimmons, stating that, “If it is not ripe, it will draw a man’s mouth awry with much torment.”

image 2

Picture 2. Persimmon Risotto. Recipe can be found at http://www.macheesmo.com/2011/12/persimmon-risotto/.

However, American persimmons are very sweet, and exhibit a flavor profile with hints of date and plum after they ripen in mid to late fall. John Smith even compared them to another fruit, stating “…when it is ripe, it is delicious as an apricot.” They are best, and sweetest, after the first hard freeze of the season. Although Persimmons ripen at different times between late September and early December, the best time to forage and find persimmons in Virginia is during the month of November. That being said, I am still foraging wild American persimmons right now, during the second week of December, and last week I was able to gather enough for another round of persimmon pudding (Picture 4.)

The American Persimmon’s range includes much of the southeastern part of the United States, extending from Oklahoma east to the Atlantic and from just north of the Ohio River south to the gulf of Mexico. It belongs to the ebony tree family. This family of plants and trees is common in Asia, where persimmons are popular and widely cultivated. In North America, the American Persimmon got its name from the Algonquin word pasimenan, meaning “fruit artificially dried or dry fruit”. The name refers to the high concentrations of tannins in, and the astringency of, unripe persimmons.

There are many documented uses of American Persimmons. Along with being planted for its delicious fruit, dried persimmons are used in baked goods and fermented with cornmeal into a type of beer, while the roasted and ground seeds are used as a substitute for coffee.[2] Native Americans dried and froze persimmons, used it in breads, and prized it as a nutritious winter food.

image 3

Picture 3. American Persimmons, gathered by the author.

Persimmons hailing from Asia also have a history and presence both locally and in North America in general. J. Russell Smith, an economist, geographer, and plant breeder from the early 20th century and author of Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture, grew oriental persimmons he brought back from China in the 1930s on his homestead near Front Royal, Virginia. Smith’s “Great Wall” oriental persimmon is sold by Virginia nursery Edible Landscaping. The nursery carries four named cultivars of Native American Persimmon, nineteen varieties of oriental persimmons, and several hybrids.

image 4

Picture 4. Baked Persimmon Pudding. Recipe can be found at http://southernfood.about.com/od/dessertrecipe1/r/bl30118q.htm

There are several local businesses and organizations that promote the use and culinary possibilities of persimmons. Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello has a workshop every October showcasing edible and native fruits and nuts, which gives tips on how to prepare American Persimmons and many other native foods.[3] Edible Landscaping Nursery, who I mentioned previously, is located near Afton in northern Nelson County, VA, and holds a Persimmon Festival every fall to celebrate this wonderful fruit. Farmstead Ferments, a local business known for their delicious krauts and fermented beverages, uses persimmons to flavor one of their water kefir sodas. Cville Foodscapes, an edible landscaping cooperative in Charlottesville, uses persimmon trees in their garden and food forests designs, in addition to offering recipes and information on both Fuyu and American persimmons through their website. Fuyu persimmons are also offered for sale through horse and buggy produce. The local excitement about persimmons makes it clear that this amazing fruit is a part of our region’s current consciousness as much as it is a part of our food heritage.

Although I had foraged, gathered, and eaten wild persimmons before, I had never tried American Persimmons, or Oriental Persimmons for that matter, in any of the numerous persimmon recipes I have come across over the years. This fall, I decided to amp up my foraging efforts (Picture 3) in order to gather enough persimmons for several trials of persimmon pudding (Picture 4). I found that 1-cup of persimmon pulp represented about 20 to 25 ripe American Persimmons. The persimmon pudding pictured below was absolutely delicious. In addition to kitchen experiments with American Persimmons, I also bought and prepared Hachiya Persimmons, an oriental variety. The Persimmon Risotto (Picture 2) that I made with them was also delectable.

image 5

Picture 5. Persimmons on an American Persimmon tree (diospyros virginiana).

Persimmons are an incredibly versatile and delicious fruit. American Persimmon trees are native to central Virginia, are found abundantly along old fencerows and back roads, and have provided food for people living in this region for a very long time. This winter, if you see any persimmons still hanging from a tree, shake a couple off for a wonderful, wild, and flavorful snack!

[1]http://www.wildmanstevebrill.com/Clippings.folder/America’s%20Puckery%20Persimmon.html

[2]http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/diospyros/virginiana.htm

[3] http://www.monticello.org/site/visit/events/edible-native-fruits-and-nuts

Going Whole Hog

Pon-hoss: Glen and Fern Heatwole

Highland County residents share recipes and tips learned from generations of raising hogs for pork

By Susanna Byrd

Pon-hoss is the lesser-known, southern cousin of Scrapple, that Pennsylvania-Dutch delicacy of pork bits and cornmeal. There are very few people who still make Pon-hoss these days and in Highland County, Fern and Glen Heatwole might be the only ones. So special a food is it, that Glen told me a story of an old man who called him up at the store one day:

hog“I heard you still make a good pon-hoss and I want to order some by mail” he said. “Could you send it to where I live now in Florida?”

The old man had moved to Florida from Highland County. He was 94 years old and had heard from the doctor that he only had so much longer to live on this earth. He said that the only thing he wanted to make sure he had before he died was another taste of pon-hoss, the real thing. So Glen wrapped him up a few precious loaves and sent them off to Florida. The old man called back, thoroughly happy and full of compliments. Glen heard that he passed away not long after.

To make Pon-hoss is to also butcher a hog. The process cannot really be done independently if the product is to be the true thing, worthy of an old Highland County man’s memory-infused taste. The various stages of making Pon-hoss correspond with the stages of butchering and it is therefore a day-long process.

Pon-hoss is made in a large copper kettle, like apple butter. As you butcher the hog, all the bones that you remove are tossed into the kettle with water to boil. Throughout the day, bones are added and the pot boils away, extracting the meat, grease and flavor and creating a strong stock. At the end of the day, the bones and bits are strained out. Any remaining meat is stripped off the bones and set aside for “puddings”* (to make scrapple, this meat would be put back into the mixture. According to Mr. Heatwole, true Pon-hoss does not include the meat bits, only the leftover stock).

In the remaining stock, a mixture of 2 parts cornmeal and 1 part flour are added and stirred constantly until it thickens to a cake batter-like consistency. Add salt and pepper to taste. Pour the mixture into bread pans and freeze. Later, cut the loaves into slices and pan fry them in lard or butter. Delicious with apple butter, applesauce or maple syrup on top.

  • “Puddings meat” is made with these leftover meat bits, lard and salt and pepper.

Self-sealed crock sausage: Donna Hooke, Sandy and Edmond Hevener and Nancy White

One common practice to preserve sausage before electricity was to keep it in a large crock. The raw, ground sausage would be put in a crock and cooked in the oven. The grease would naturally rise to cover the meat and when the sausage was fully cooked, the crock was pulled out of the oven and the lard would congeal in a thick layer on top of the meat. This formed a natural seal that kept the sausage underneath from going bad. The crock would be stored in the root cellar and whenever sausage was desired, you could simply scoop the lard aside, pull some out from below and re-cover the top with the lard.

Submit a Story!

Thank you for submitting to Virginia Food Heritage Project!

Doughnuts, Unwrapped

Maple Doughnuts, Unwrapped

IMG_20130309_125004

 A treat from Mill Gap, Virginia

By: Susanna Byrd, Allegheny Mountain School Alumn

            If you were born and raised in Mill Gap, Virginia, you know about Maple Doughnuts. But for most of the rest of us, it will be refreshing to hear a story about doughnuts that does not end in an attack of regret or high blood sugar. When they have as rich a story as those that come from Mill Gap, doughnuts deserve a little more of our attention than the drive thru window permits. I’m willing to bet that, surrounded by affection and community as they are, the Mill Gap Doughnuts are ten times more nourishing for your health than their mainstream cousins.

Food with a story is important, as the Virginia Food Heritage Project is so ardently trying to demonstrate. What I crave is food that comes wrapped in the layers of generations, the ebb and flow of cultures, the changes of many thousands of seasons. I don’t want food that comes wrapped in only plastic. If there were a plastic wrapper on the Mill Gap doughnuts, it might display nutritional values, breaking the woven whole of the doughnut into the parcels of guilt associated with fat, sugar and carbohydrate. But a Mill Gap Doughnut is so much bigger than its parts. In its own way, it nourishes community. To find its wrapper, you have to see the places it comes from, talk to the people who make it and share some of yourself in the process.

So we’ll start in Mill Gap. Located near the intersection of Routes 84 and 600 (Little Back Creek Rd), Mill Gap is a small, rural place. It sits strategically in the low place where Rt. 84 comes through one ridge of the numerous North-South mountain chains in Highland County. There is undoubtedly an old well of community in this area, now mostly maintained by church functions and the Ruritans club. That community shows up in force every year on the first and second weekends in March to make and sell maple doughnuts in Monterey at the Highland County Maple Festival. “If your father was a Mill Gap Ruritan, you did something with doughnuts every year,” says Cappie Hull, who grew up in Mill Gap. “When we were little…the Mill Gap Ruritans decided that ‘we have fun making doughnuts down in Mill Gap. Let’s make doughnuts for the maple festival.’ And so in the very beginning, the Ruritans would sell one doughnut and a cup of coffee…”

The Highland County Maple Festival has been held every year since 1958 and now attracts thousands of visitors, who tour ‘sugar houses’ and the ‘sugar bush’ (the grove of Sugar Maple trees that are tapped to make syrup) and partake in all-you-can-eat pancake breakfasts, replete with the authentic maple syrup made all over the county. But even before the days if the festival, Mill Gap residents often came together for special occasions of their own like birthdays and holidays. At these gatherings, according to Cappie, there more often than not would be doughnuts frying:

“The people in Mill Gap…had the sleigh ride and they had a family day where generations got together and made the doughnuts, which was usually a Sunday or a weekend or a birthday or a special occasion…and as a family you made the doughnuts. And the grandma and your mom usually made the dough and the children did the hole picking…And it was an event to work together, make the product and then eat it, like a gorge.”

Donna Hooke, who grew up in Mill Gap and now owns a small food store in Monterey called ‘Evelyn’s Pantry,’ remembers her birthdays in Mill Gap:

“For my birthday…in January, we would go to my grandparent’s house and grandaddy would always…pack that hill down and he had barrels alongside the route with fires in them so you could see. And everybody from the neighborhood would come and sleigh ride at night time. And then when you got done, grandma and mom had doughnuts ready to fry and we had a big doughnut feast and hot chocolate or milk.”

And how to make these oh-so-special doughnuts? Well, you’ll have to go to the next Maple Festival (March 8-9 and 15-16) and find the Mill Gap Ruritans themselves selling doughnuts. Even then you’ll only be seeing the facade of what can be a mighty endeavor. In the first years of the festival, the Mill Gappers would set up the doughnut-making operation in the smallest house in town: “Well, back then size didn’t matter, so we went to the smallest house because they were the only people who had ties to Mill Gap. But they lived in Monterey… They had this itty bitty house, and we made doughnuts in that itty bitty house,” recalls Cappie.

Cappie was a young girl in those first years, but she remembers who did what: “The daddies came out to town and probably just sat around. They all sat there, probably 20 of them, to sell you doughnuts. But [the mommies’ and children’s] job was to produce them in that little house…The whole house, the beds, the whole house had doughnuts raisin’.” The youngest children were in charge of “pickin’ holes.” After a mother had used the doughnut cutter to shape the dough, the kids would go and pick out the centers. With maturity came the job of easing the doughnuts into the hot oil to fry. “And then we became professional glazers,” says Cappie fondly, in charge of making and applying the famous maple glaze.

So the Mill Gap doughnuts really brought the community together. And they still do; “If you don’t have your own personal business, you’re still making doughnuts [during Maple Festival],” says Donna. Cappie nods, saying that during the Maple Festival, she always helps out. “We couldn’t come to town and not feel like we had to.” I personally am glad that the community holds so strong; Now, “unwrapped”, I can taste that distinct flavor, as I sink my teeth into stories and maple sweetness all at once.

Recipes that Restore

The Times and Tastes of Culpeper Cookbook

The Times and Tastes of Culpeper

Coffee cake, Virginia batter cake, and more recipes can be found in The Times and Tastes of Culpeper, an incredible book with recipes that range from historic to modern, from the era in which “slow food” was the only sort available, to today’s time-saving recipes. This book has 300 years of history and 300 years of recipes in it — people came to the Culpeper area in the early 1700s and the recipes cover the entire timespan. Not only do these recipes have a rich history, but they are local — all the recipes in the book are from Culpeper or from cookbooks that would have been used in their day!

All proceeds from the sale of this cookbook will be dedicated to the repair of St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church, which was damaged in the 2011 earthquake. Click here to find out how to get a copy of your own!

Further Reading: Food heritage-related books!

The Times and Tastes of Culpeper, by members of St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church

Twain’s Feast: Searching for America’s Lost Foods in the Footsteps of Samuel Clemens, by Andrew Beahrs

The Pioneer Village Cookbook:  Reliable Receipts & Curious Remedies, by Ann Chandonnet

Dishing Up Virginia, by Patrick Evans-Hylton

The Taste of America, by John and Karen Hess

Out of the Ordinary: Recipes from The Hingham Historical Society, by The Hingham Historical Society

Secrets of the Blue Ridge: Stories From Western Albemarle, by Phil James

Food on the Frontier: Minnesota Cooking from 1850 to 1900 with Selected Recipes, by Marjorie Kreidberg

The Big Oyster: History on the Half Shell, by Mark Kurlansky

Cod: A Biography of Fish that Changed the World, by Mark Kurlansky

The Food of a Younger Land: A Portrait of American Food – Before the National Highway System, Before Chain Restaurants, and Before Frozen Food, When the Nation’s Food was Seasonal, by Mark Kurlansky

Salt: A World History, by Mark Kurlansky

The Beginner’s Guide to Hunting Deer for Food, by Jackson Landers

An Irresistable History of Southern Food: Four Centuries of Black-Eyed Peas, Collard Greens and Whole Hog Barbecue, by Rick McDaniel

Bush Medicine of the Bahamas, by Jeff McCormack

Desert Terrior: Exploring the Unique Flavors of Sundry Places of the Borderlands, by Gary Nabhan

Where Our Food Comes From, by Gary Nabhan

Peanuts: The Illustrious History of the Goober Pea, by Andrew F. Smith

Popped Culture: A Social History of Popcorn in American, by Andrew F. Smith

Fading Feast: A Compendium of Disappearing American Regional Foods, by Raymond Sokolov

A Garden Supper Tonight:  Historic Seasonal Recipes & Home Lore, by Barbara Swell

Mama’s in the Kitchen:  Weird & Wonderful Home Cooking 1900-1950, by Barbara Swell

Old-time Farmhouse Cooking:  Rural American Recipes & Farm Lore, by Barbara Swell

The Way We Ate: Pacific Northwest Cooking, 1843-1900, by Jacqueline B. Williams

Brunswick Stew!

The origins of the popular southern dish, Brunswick Stew, is often debated. “One version of Brunswick Stew traces its origins to Brunswick County, Virginia. Tradition has it that the dish was created in 1828 by an African-American chef, ‘Uncle’ Jimmy Matthews. While serving as camp cook during a hunting expedition, Matthews shot squirrels combined them with onions, dry bread and other ingredients, and made dinner.”

 First catch your chickens, clean and cut them.

And in an iron pot you put them.

And water nearly to the top

And in it salt and pepper drop;

Boil slowly. Your tomatoes peel;

Put in a shin or so of veal;

And for the flavor bear in mind,

A chunk of middling with the rind.

Next some onions you throw in,

the young and tender skin,

And butter beans do not forget;

And what is more important yet;

The corn, but do not be too fast,

For you must cut and add it last;

For better than the flour you’ll find it’ll do

To give some thickness to the stew.

Some lemon peel cut very thin

May then be added and stirred in,

And ere it’s taken from the fire

Give it a dash of Worcestershire,

And soon you will hear its praises ring,

This is a dish fit for a king.

–Virginia Woodroof, 1930

This recipe was supplied by Ann Chandonnet, author of The Pioneer Village Cookbook, which can be found here! Don’t like to cook? Attend Richmond’s Brunswick Stew Festival next year! More information can be found on our food heritage events page.